Gujarat is the westernmost state of India situated between 20.6 and 24.42 degrees north latitude and 68.10 and 74.28 degrees east longitude. The sparkling Arabian Sea at its verge by its gentle touch makes the hot sands blush. The astounding beauty of the State can be witnessed in the areas of Katchh and Bhuj the sunlight makes a netted sunbeam dance over its shimmering silver sands. In the Gir Forest the 'Kings of the Jungle', Lions crouch to maintain their privacy that is hampered by the visitors. The temples of Gujarat that are emblem of rich cultural tradition by the fragrance of incense sticks and chanting of mantas spread peace and unique euphoria.
According to census 2001, Gujarat ranks tenth in population. On 1st March 2001, provisional estimation (because Gujarat was hit by earth quake, no survey was conducted) showed that the population of Gujarat was 5.06 crores. About 44.8 % of the total population in rural areas and 64.8 % in urban areas are literate. There are many tribes in Gujarat few of them are Bhils, Kolis, Rabaris and Gujars.
Due to proximity to Arabian Sea, the climate of Gujarat is mainly moist in the southern districts and is dry in the north because of adjoining desert. The areas like Kutch, Jamnagar, Panchmahals and Mehsana fall in the rain shadow area and thus receive scanty rainfall. The state experiences extreme type of climate. There is winter season from November to February, the hot season from March to May, the southwest monsoon season from June to September and the transitional month of October.
Gujarat is well known for its archaeological importance. The famous sites of Harappan culture named Lothal, Rangpur, Rozdi and Amri etc. were excavated here. Approximately 50 Harappan sites have been found here. The original inhabitants of Gujarat were Dravidians. Due to its coastline there was a channel of international trade between Gujarat and the rest of the world. The History of Gujarat is very vast as the state was captured and ruled by various conquerors like Ashoka, Mauryans, Scythians, Guptas, Solanki dynasty and Mughals.
The rivers that drench the dry plains of Gujarat are Narmada, Tapi and Mahi.The major cities in Gujarat are Ahemdabad, Surat, Vadodra, Jamnagar, Bhuj, Dwarka and Ankleshwar.